Lenovo Bios Agreement

I just bought and turned on my brand new p2 and everything was fine until I got the “licensing agreement” In good conscience, it`s not possible to accept without the “licensing agreement” so I feel a few questions. In addition, the “licensing agreement” states that Lenovo collects “basic information,” “use information,” “application information.” What exactly does this mean? Should it be impregnated as “Lenovo 24/7 Survailance”? The bio update is really important, because if the user does not update the bios and firmware, the system will be delayed and many software or applications will not be connected. I encountered the same problem when syncing Outlook connectivity and without updating the bios, it showed the 10060 connection error on the interface. So I had to update the bios. Hello JanGab, the first day after buying this new computer, I checked for updates and there were 4 in total 3 optional and a review, as this review for bios. Then I went with this thought, it was essential. As you say, the day software preinstalled in the computer is the one that pushed me to… Based on the information you sent, we advise you to uninstall what you originally installed, as this is not the firmware of our bios update. If you don`t feel safe, run an antivirus program on your computer to make sure it`s free of any threat. Below is the appropriate bios update link;support.lenovo.com/us/en/products/Laptops-and-netbooks/500-Series/500s-13isk/80Q2/005DHH/downloads/DS112433Thank you. Lenovo agreed technical assistance.

The version on companion/Lenovo Systemupdate is 30 days after the version on the support page. In this case, they are identical. The version of the support page is sent to Lenovo System Update quality people for installation wrapper and quality assurance, at least 30 days. The file that can be downloaded from the site was also compatible with the SHA1 for me. Sha hardware can only be found on the SUPPORT page AND included in the XML SU wrappers. Mods Comment: The built-in link triggers a malwarebytes warning for fraud. Did you find an answer at the end? I have the same problem, but with my new Lenovo Ideapad 530s By opening companion manually, I was also able to download the update directly. During the installation, I was brought through the same installation process as I had seen before.

It is therefore possible that the original is still in order despite the SHA1 problem. When I checked Lenovo Vantage for system updates it showed the BIOS update is available. Install it` How will these instructions be interpersed? Am I just denying the phone? This is a communication problem with Lenovo that does not communicate any changes. I`m more worried about this installation program than I could be, because the Kaspersky subscription I received with my Lenovo purchase was disabled last week.

Lease Rent Agreement In India

Use our easy-to-navigate maintenance questionnaire, complete the required fields and you have the most up-to-date rental contract available for printing in minutes!!! At the end of this process, we will also tell you what you need to do to make this agreement legally valid. In order to reduce costs, tenants and landlords sometimes agree orally on the lease and avoid the execution of a tenancy agreement. At one point, they also document the agreement and set the terms of the lease, but decide not to register the document. This is due to the fact that both parties must pay a registration fee when a lease is entered into and registered. The lessor is also required to declare his rental income as soon as the lease is final. However, entering into a non-registration lease is illegal and could be a risky transaction for both parties, particularly in the event of future litigation. The Registration Act of 1908 requires the registration of a lease if the tenancy period is more than 11 months. You can create a lease agreement using our simple and error-free lease format in the following scenarios: Visitor: The contract must contain a clause of who can visit you and when. The proposed lease agreement should be printed on stamp paper with an appropriate stamp value, in accordance with each state`s stamp law, in order to make it valid. In some countries where electronic stamping is available for leases, you don`t need to physically purchase stamp paper. You can register on the website of the Holding Company of India (SHCIL) and verify that the state in which you reside offers this establishment. Currently, Assam, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, NCR Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh allow electronic signing of leases. There is no special provision in the right to rent the initial amount of the down payment.

10 months in advance, it is rather a convention that is followed. In cities like Bengaluru, homeowners usually charge 10 months in advance, but the same can be 2-3 months in Hyderabad. We can always negotiate. See also: Compromise clause in rental agreements and how it can help landlords and tenants Under the provisions of the 2019 Model Rent Bill, landlords cannot implement a pre-fixed rent increase for the entire period for which a tenancy agreement was signed. For example, when the lease expires after 11 months, the lessor cannot increase the monthly rent during that period. It is only at the expiry of this period and the date of registration of the new lease that the lessor is legally entitled to proceed with an increase in the rate that does not generally exceed 10% of the existing amount. In addition, the landlord must give the tenant three months` notice before increasing the rent under the bill. A tenancy agreement is a legal document that defines the conditions previously discussed, in which the tenancy is leased and which must be respected between the landlord and the tenant.

Lease Agreement Form To Print

Once you are ready to document the details of the agreement, look for the first instruction. In this regard, we must attach a date to this document, along with the parties who enter it with a binding signature. Start by showing the calendar date when this agreement is made with the first two spaces of this statement. We must now consolidate the two sides that will sign this treaty. Enter the full name of the landlord (or leasing company) in the empty line at the clip with the inscription “Bailleur.” The next party we need to identify is the tenant. That is, the person (s) who pays the landlord a predetermined amount of rent at regular intervals in exchange for the right to live on the ground to discuss. Include the full name of each customer who enters this contract for the next space of this statement. You enter into a lease by rewriting it from scratch, by filling out an “empty lease” containing all the necessary clauses, or by using a [rental contract builder] to create a specific lease agreement for your property. A deposit is paid by a tenant at the beginning of a rental agreement to a landlord and returned to the landlord after the handover of the property. The deposit may be lost if the tenant resigns from the lease or eviction. It can be deducted if damage has been found at the end of the lease, with the exception of normal wear and tear.

Before entering into a tenancy agreement, the tenant will generally consult the space and deem it acceptable for their standard of living and make an oral offer to the real estate agent, trustee or landlord. The oral offer usually covers a monthly rent amount. A tenancy agreement or lease is a legal document that is an agreement between a real estate owner known as a “lessor” or “lessor,” and someone else who is willing to pay rent during the occupancy of the property, known as a “tenant” or “tenant.” To rent a room, both parties sign the contract and the landlord collects a security deposit from the tenant before handing over the keys Use a commercial lease if you rent an office building, retail space, restaurant, industrial facility or property in which the tenant operates a store. Communications – If the tenant or landlord violates part of the rental agreement, the parties must have both addresses (mailing and/or e-mail) to which everyone can send a message. Caution – The amount due at the time of signing the lease. This usually corresponds to one (1) or two (2) months` rent and is regulated in most countries for not having more than a few months` rent. Sublease contract (sublease contract) – The space rental that a tenant has to someone else. The difference between a lease and a lease is the length of the contract. Leasing contracts are generally long-term contracts (12 to 24 months), while leases are generally short-term (a few weeks or months). A tenancy agreement is a legally binding contract that is used when a landlord (the “owner”) leases a property to a tenant (the “Lessee”). This written agreement indicates the terms of the rent, how long the tenant will rent the property and how much they will pay, in addition to the impact on the breach of the agreement.

From start to finish, follow this simple guide to renting a home properly. Renewal letter – To renew a lease and make changes to the contract, for example. B monthly rent. In “5. The Owner section gives you the option to designate a specific institution that represents the interests and concerns of the owner in the management of this property. Create the name of this entity on the empty space after the word “owner.” However, the declaration “use of premises” does not require attention, period 7.

Lawdepot Lease Agreement

A tenant is a person who signs a tenancy agreement and binds it under the terms of the tenancy agreement. The rental agreement is only between the tenant and the landlord. A rental agreement is a contract signed by a landlord and tenant when a tenant wishes to rent commercial or residential property. A lease agreement with no end date (usually called a periodic lease or automatic renewal contract) is used if the lease is automatically renewed after a certain period (. B, for example, every month, six months or year). In this type of tenancy, the landlord and tenant rent until a party submits a notice stating that they wish the lease to be terminated. Owners who use LawDepot`s rent have the option to choose a standard or full contract. A comprehensive agreement offers more options and legal protection than a standard agreement. In addition to the information contained in a typical agreement, a full lease agreement can determine whether the property is established or not (with the possibility of including a description), designate a property manager acting on behalf of the lessor and indicate whether the tenant can manage a real estate transaction on the site.

You should list in your rental agreement all the people who reside in your apartment, including tenants and residents. Although occupants do not have the same legal obligations as tenants, they normally have to be included in the tenancy agreement to be protected by government rent laws. However, an inmate`s legal rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction, so it is important to review your local rent laws to clarify things. You don`t need to have your rental agreement certified, as leases are generally considered short-term contracts. Rental conditions are usually month to month, three months, six months or one year. TIP: It is recommended that you re-forward your state`s rental laws for more information when you plan to sign a long-term lease. For example, establishing a lease requires answering a few questions. Choose your document directly from the home page: The software will then guide you through a simple production process: After answering all the questions, you just need to check your document, pay for it and print it out. Once ready to pay, choose your type of license: one-time payment, free trial version or annual subscription. Simple and painless. Some states consider leases of more than one year to be long-term leases; in this case, they may need to be certified.

In general, there is not much money to pay for a lease to be notarized (often between 5 and 10 dollars). If you`re not sure you need to certify your notarized lease, the small investment is probably worth it. This type of tenancy agreement also allows the landlord to register a pet deposit or fee and contains information about a guarantor (i.e. a third party, such as a relative or close friend, who agrees to assume financial obligations if the tenant is late in the tenant`s payment). A typical lease also includes each party`s lease fees and obligations, rental details (the amount owed, payment frequency, late fees, etc.) and other payment information, such as security data.B.

Laguna Woods Lease Agreement

If you want to go for a laguna woods propert commercial for leasing, you must first get professional advice from a number of different people. An agreement to comply with future rules, implemented by owner Bain and Atkin, is one of several tenants who recently created the Laguna Woods Renters Association, made up of more than 25 tenants and landlords who oppose recent rate increases and rental policies. The revisions to the Leasing Directive include the handing over of the rental document when adding or introducing new takers, banning advertising on holiday rental and holiday rental platforms, and banning leases involving members and any non-profit housing company or housing company. The economy of Laguna Woods is unique as such as it is much a community of retirees. As such, there is a considerable need for services for the elderly, including things like medical clinics, physiotherapy and pharmacies, but very little need for regular entertainment, shopping and food. For this reason, it is not too popular an area for commercial real estate investors. That is, there is always the potential to buy commercial properties (CREs), either to become an owner or to start a business there. In the latter category, the alternative is to rent a property, and decide which of the two options is the best – purchase or leasing – is a very complex decision. First, you need an accountant who can make sure that the financial side is properly examined. Second, you need a lawyer to ensure that you comply with all relevant laws, statutes and regulations. Finally, you need a real estate agent to help you find a property. Here you have two different possibilities.

You can work with a leasing agent who usually represents a single real estate developer with many features, which means you may need to ask for the services of multiple agents to display enough properties. The second option is to work with rental enthusiasts who will have different owners in their file. You will most likely want to sign a representation agreement, which means you can`t see any property that isn`t on your books. In most cases, the lessor will pay the brokerage fees, and the leasing agents work primarily on behalf of the landlord, while the tenant works more on you. Nevertheless, there are many situations where working with a leasing agent is always the best option. Short-term leases are common under both housing conditions, with third Mutual having an average of 18 units with 3-month leases and 27 units with a six-month lease. United Mutual has an average of 30 three-month rental units and 53 units with six-month leases. Bain said that while he recently renewed his lease, he had to perform a 20-page background check, which required private information that he considered unnecessary after living and renting for four years at Laguna Woods. If you see comments that you find offensive, use the “flag as inappropriate” feature by moving the mouse cursor to the right side of the article and pulling it down on the displayed arrow. Or email our editors to moderator@scng.com. Laguna Woods has 12,736 units, 27 percent of which are condominiums and 8 percent of co-ops are rented, according to recent municipal services reports. First, leases allowed tenants to be added and subtracted during the permitted tenancy period, often concealing unauthorized room rentals or subletting.

It is clear that leases are very complex documents on which a lot of thought is needed. However, if you buy CRE, you won`t be of the above value. On the contrary, you own a property with which you can do what you want, within the limits of three things: If you look at the pros and cons of the Laguna Woods commercial building for sale and leasing options, it is important to

Kastigar Letter Agreement

But there are even greater risks in the supply. Almost all makeshift agreements allow the government to use your statements against you for impeachment purposes if you take a position in a subsequent proceeding and testify inconsistently with your offer. And the witness`s version, which is compared to your testimony to see if you should be charged, is the version interpreted and written by government agents. What is even more threatening is that in recent years, many government-developed comised agreements have allowed your statements to be used against you if any part of your defence, including government lawyers under cross-examination, does not match your offer. These widely formulated agreements, which have been systematically upheld at the Federal Court of Justice, may effectively deny you the right to present a defence in court if your expected immunity or oral argument does not pass. What for? Because if part of your defense is considered incompatible with your offer and if that proter involves you in one way or another, the entire promoter will be judged against you. Thus, your lawyer may find himself in the inevitable position of not challenging important parts of the government case, refusing to question certain witnesses and not choosing to put you in the gallery, while dodging to prevent your prejudicial testimony before the jury. Proposals for successful agreements submitted to you for your signatures and your lawyer`s signatures must be carefully considered. 3. The total veracity and transparency of your client are explicit essential conditions for the government`s commitments set out in this letter, which is why the government may use statements or other information provided by you or your client during the amount offered in the following circumstances: You must not only be careful what the position or positions invoked by you or your client during the examination are asserting. , the arrangement of the U.S. Attorney in Maryland County exposes you to the unpredictable actions of the judge.

In one of the letters of proffer, the U.S. Attorney`s Office asserts the right to use your statements or your client`s statements to refute any argument put forward by the court. In defending your case, no matter how diligent you can follow the line by questioning the government`s case and avoiding taking a position that opens the door to the government`s use of proffer information, the court may decide to ask a question that directly challenges these issues. The government then takes the position that it can use the information provided by you or your client to refute the problems generated in the case, not by you or your client, but by the court. You have to be very careful when there are letters that are not about fairness in the negotiations, but about advantage and leverage. The accused signed a plea contract that required the government not to lay additional charges based on the information he had provided to the government. Subsequently, the accused was charged with firearms-related offences that significantly increased his sentence. He challenged the firearms charges on the grounds that the parties intended to be part of them.

The government disputed this assertion. The Eleventh Circuit found that the means should be interpreted in the context of the negotiations and should not be construed as being directly contrary to an oral agreement. The court must also ascertain whether the government`s actions are inconsistent with what the accused reasonably understood when he pleaded guilty. In this case, the appeal agreement was not clear, as it was not clear whether the defendant had already provided the information (considered to be vaccinated) or whether he could provide the information after the signing of the appeal agreement.

Joint-Control-Agreement Nach Art. 26 Dsgvo

Since December 2015, energy audits have been required and repeated after four years. As a result, many companies must make implementation arrangements by the end of 2019. … Read more Since a breach of the obligations under section 26 of the RGPD under section 83, paragraph 4, point a, of the RGPD, is a fine, the well-known problem needs to be addressed. Its data protection representative is assisting you in this regard. Free type contract of shared responsibility according to art. 26 of RG Stephan Hansen-Oest (1) […] They determine, in a transparent agreement, which of them fulfils what obligation under this Regulation, in particular with regard to the exercise of the rights of the person concerned, and who fulfils what information obligations in accordance with Articles 13 and 14, provided that the respective responsibilities of those responsible are not defined by THE legislation of the Union or the Member States to which those responsible are subject. The agreement may indicate a point of contact for those affected. (2) The agreement … must adequately reflect the functions and effective relationships of the joint leaders with the persons concerned. The bulk of the agreement is made available to the person concerned.

[…] (Adds) Finally, so-called separate liability covers cases where there is no direct link between the data processing of several independent officials. Each company processes the data for its own purposes and must therefore independently fulfill the obligations of the RGPD and cannot share it internally with the other company. Unlike shared responsibility, there is no decisive influence of one manager on the purposes of data processing on the other. There is therefore no need to enter into a data protection contract between the parties. The persons concerned must comply with the responsible company based on the processing of the data concerned. Depending on the type of company cooperation, this must be done in the form of a joint control agreement or an order processing agreement. Stuttgart, 22 January 2020 – Audit and consulting firm Ebner Stolz has appointed 13 partners, 13 directors and three legal counsel from its own ranks at the end of the year. “The high commitment and expertise of the new partners, directors and counsel played an important role in the fact that we continued to successfully establish ourselves as a brand for the high-level middle class,” says Dr. Wolfgang Russ, partner of Ebner Stolz in Stuttgart. The appointment is a signal that the strategy is bearing fruit and that Ebner Stolz, in audit and advisory matters, continues to pursue strong growth. … Read more Common Responsibility: According to DSK, the shared responsibility is that “each participant has some real influence on data processing.” (P.

2, last paragraph) The case you described is not aware of this feature, so there is no sharing of responsibility.

Isla Master Reporting Agreement

“[Reporting agreements] highlight the risks and the risks remain to the counterparty that has a reporting obligation, not to the company that provides delegated reporting,” the advisor explains. “It`s pretty simple.” While the existing reporting agreement concerned the possibility for a counterparty of a derivative instrument to delegate its EMIR reporting obligations, the EMIR-Refit Regulation and the SFTR require that, if one of the counterparties of the transaction concerned is a financial consideration (FC) and the other part NFC4, the CF is responsible for itself, its counterparty and a legal liability , and to ensure the accuracy of the reported data5 (obligation). The modular approach of the MRRA allows contracting parties to agree on different annexes (and to add new regulatory deadlines) to meet their requirements, whether mandatory or delegated. Some say the standard format of the contract will facilitate agreements. Others believe that the document is too complex and too long to be widely adopted. As noted in the Webinar, ISDA and other professional organizations had written to the AEMF requesting leniency under the law with respect to the start of the obligation to notify financial counterparties by the NFC on June 18. The webinars were recorded prior to the AEMF response. On 14 August 2019, the association group launched a consultation on this subject, with the deadline for submitting reactions being 23 August. In the issue of feedback, the associations stated that they were aware that the timetable for preparing and publishing the agreement was “very difficult”. MRRA establishes common conditions for the mandatory and delegated reporting of derivatives transactions under Operation EMIR, consistent with the amendments introduced by EMIR Refit and securities financing transactions under the SFTR. The agreement was also drawn up to ensure that these conditions remain effective after Brexit. ISLA stressed that the use of a common model for all reporting relationships within the two sets of rules will improve the efficiency and consistency of the administrative reporting process. According to Isla, changes to the declaration regime under the Emir and the introduction of a new reporting system under the SFTR have led market participants to create new reporting agreements on the EU derivatives and SFT markets.

“It`s a way to document [delegated reporting agreements] in a standard format, so you don`t have to redevelop new documents on a bilateral basis and there`s no huge legal burden on production, but it goes and is pretty close to the criteria of the settlement,” Talks says. There is a disparity between associations and market participants with regard to the use of a Master Regulatory Reporting Agreement (MRRA) for the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (Emir) and the Declaration of Securities Financing Operations (SFTR). This new agreement applies to the EMIR Regulation, but it also applies to the Securities Financing Transactions Regulation (SFTR), the first phase of which is expected to come into force in April 2020. But the councillor says that delegated report agreements are usually between two and four pages long. The Master Regulatory Reporting Agreement (MRRA) is based on the draft similar agreement of the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) for reporting in accordance with the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). On 19 December 2019, the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (Isda), the Fia Industry Association (FIA), the International Capital Market Association (Icma) and the International Securities Lending Association (Isla) published the MRRA with the aim of providing a standard contract format for companies that offer or sub-process delegated reports.

Is A Collective Agreement Legally Binding

Although the collective agreement itself is not applicable, many of the negotiated terms relate to wages, conditions, leave, pensions, etc. These conditions are included in a worker`s employment contract (whether the worker is unionized or not); and the employment contract is of course applicable. If the new conditions are not acceptable to individuals, they may be contrary to their employer; but if the majority of workers have agreed, the company will be able to dismiss the complainants, usually unpunished. If a collective agreement contains a non-strike clause (which limits or prohibits trade union action), it is also not considered binding on individual workers, unless it is written, it should be noted that these clauses are included in a contract as explicitly or implicitly included in the individual`s employment contract and is easily accessible in the workplace. As a general rule, the negotiation of the first collective agreement lasts up to six months. Negotiations on renewal agreements will also take a few months, but the old agreement will remain in force during negotiations. contains a provision (but explicit) indicating that the parties intend to be legally applicable. A collective agreement is between an employer (or employer organization) and a union or union (s). A collective agreement is deemed voluntary (i.e. non-legally binding) unless it is available in writing and contains a statement indicating that the parties intend to do so. The agreement is accepted by tacit means arising from habit and practice in the sector.

In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017). [5] [6] Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements. [7] Collective agreements are agreements negotiated between one or more unions and employers or employers` organisations that deal with one or more of the following rules: Collective agreements in Germany are legally binding, which is accepted by the public, and this is of no concern. [2] [Failed verification] While in the United Kingdom there was (and probably still is) an “she and us” attitude in labour relations, the situation is very different in post-war Germany and in some other northern European countries. In Germany, the spirit of cooperation between the social partners is much greater. For more than 50 years, German workers have been represented by law on boards of directors. [3] Together, management and workers are considered “social partners.” [4] Before entering into negotiations on a collective agreement, the union must be certified by the Labour Council. In a short period of time after the certification is received, the union will begin collective bargaining (or negotiations) with the employer. The aim of the negotiations is to reach agreement on the many issues that can be included in the agreement.

Workers are not required to join a union in a given workplace. Nevertheless, most industries, with an average union training of 70%, are subject to a collective agreement. An agreement does not prohibit higher wages and better benefits, but sets a legal minimum, much like a minimum wage. In addition, an agreement on national income policy is often, but not always, reached, bringing together all trade unions, employers` organisations and the Finnish government. [1] The Act is now contained in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 s.179, which provides that collective agreements are definitively considered non-binding in the United Kingdom.

Introduction Of Agreement And Contract

If one party has already fulfilled its part of the agreement, it would be unfair to allow the other party to avoid paying the price. An exception arises when advertising makes a unilateral promise, such as offering a reward, as decided in the famous case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co,[18] in 19th century England. The company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer, proposed a smokeball that, if it sniffed “three times a day for two weeks,” would prevent users from catching the “flu.” If the smokeball does not prevent “the flu, the company promised that it would pay $100 to the user, adding that they deposited “$1000 in the Alliance bank to show our sincerity in the file.” When Ms. Carlill complained about the money, the company argued that the complaint should not be considered a serious and legally binding offer; instead, it was a “simple mess”; However, the Court of Appeal found that Carbolic had made a serious offer to a reasonable man and found that the reward was a contractual undertaking. -However, there are many problems with contractual freedom: the contractual agreement is applied for three reasons: the distinction between explicit and tacit contracts has gained some notoriety in the so-called Palimony cases, where a member of an unmarried couple seeks to share the estate after a breakdown of a long-standing relationship between life and cohabitation. When a couple divorces, their legal marriage contract is terminated and financial rights and obligations are defined in a large number of statutes and court decisions for internal relations. For unmarried couples, there are no such laws. However, about one-third of states recognize marriage under the common law, whereby two persons are considered married when they live together with the intention of marrying, have not been licensed or have been ceremonially. Although there is no effective marriage contract (no license), their behaviour implies that the parties intended to be treated as if they were married. Damage can be general or logical.

General damage is damage that naturally results from an offence. Consecutive damages are damages which, although not naturally the result of an offence, are of course accepted by both parties at the time of writing. An example would be that someone rents a car to go to a business meeting, but if that person comes to pick up the car, they are not there. The general damage would be the cost of renting another car. Consecutive damage would be lost if that person could not make it to the meeting, if both parties knew why the party rented the car. However, the obligation to reduce losses remains. The fact that the car was not there does not give the party the right not to try to rent another car. -There are certain essential elements to constitute a simple valid and binding contract, such as: a contractual clause is “a provision that is part of a contract”.

[56] Any clause gives rise to a contractual obligation, the violation of which may give rise to litigation. Not all conditions are explicitly specified and certain conditions have less legal weight, as they are marginal in the treaty`s objectives. [57] Contract law does not set a clear limit on what is considered an acceptable false claim or is not acceptable. The question, then, is what types of false allegations (or deceptions) will be significant enough to invalidate a contract on the basis of this deception. Advertising that uses “puffing” or the practice of exaggerating certain things is a matter of possible false assertions. [102] However, in the years that followed, the courts went so far as to justify actions for damages for various non-contractual undertakings.