Free trade agreements are treaties that regulate the tariffs, taxes and tariffs that countries collect for their imports and exports. The most well-known regional trade agreement in the United States is the North American Free Trade Agreement. Domestic industries often oppose free trade on the grounds that it would reduce the prices of imported goods, thereby reducing their profits and market share.   For example, if the United States reduced tariffs on imported sugar, sugar producers would receive lower prices and profits, and sugar consumers would spend less on the same amount of sugar because of the same lower prices. David Ricardo`s economic theory says that consumers would necessarily earn more than producers would lose.   Given that each of the domestic sugar producers would lose a great deal, while each of the large consumers would earn little, domestic producers are more likely to mobilize against tariff reductions.  In general, producers often prefer domestic subsidies and import tariffs in their home countries, while refusing subsidies and tariffs on their export markets. Japan is no exception to this global trend. Japanese NSMs have also expanded their supply chain networks, covering many parts of the world, particularly in East Asia, through foreign direct investment (FDI), and have used various regional free trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to compete with their competitors. The Japanese government recognizes that free trade agreements are helping to capitalize on the dynamism of the global economy for its economic recovery and growth in a depopulation phase and has adopted 15 free trade agreements with 18 countries since its first agreement with Singapore in 2002. Japan, in its free trade agreements, has so far focused on Asia and the Pacific and is currently negotiating three mega-FTAs involving a large number of countries: the Japan-EU Free Trade Agreement, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), which involves 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region excluding the United States, and the Global Regional Economic Partnership (RCEP), in which 16 East Asian countries participate including China and India. During the interwar period, economic protectionism took shape in the United States, particularly in the form of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, which economists welcomed with the continued and global spread of the Great Depression. :33 From 1934, trade liberalization began with the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act.
The Ottoman Empire had until the 18th century a liberal policy of free trade, the origin of the capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, which date back to the first trade agreements signed with France in 1536 and continued in 1673 with capitulations, 1740, thus reducing tariffs on imports and exports to only 3% and 1790. The Ottoman free trade policy has been welcomed by British economists, who engaged in his Dictionary of Commerce (1834) for free trade as J. R. McCulloch, but criticized by British politicians who opposed free trade, such as Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who cited the Ottoman Empire as “an example of unbridled competition violation” in the debate on corn legislation of 1846 , arguing that by 1812 he had destroyed “some of the best manufacturers in the world.”  Free trade is a kind of sacred cow in the economy.